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Category Archives: Food & Drink

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Drink Coffe For Your Health

If you have a daily coffee habit, here’s something to buzz about: A new study finds those cups of joe may help boost longevity.

“In our study, we found people who drank three to five cups of coffee per day had about a 15 percent lower [risk of premature] mortality compared to people who didn’t drink coffee,” says one of the study authors, nutrition researcher Walter Willett of the Harvard School of Public Health. Decaf drinkers also saw benefits.

The findings, published in the journal Circulation, build on a body of evidence linking a coffee habit to potential health benefits.

As we’ve reported, previous research has pointed to a decreased risk of stroke. And, there’s some evidence that a coffee habit cuts the risk of Type 2 diabetes, too.

Now, of course, it’s possible to overdo it with caffeine. Research has shown that consuming more than 400 milligrams of caffeine can interfere with sleep and create feelings of unease. And some of us are even more sensitive. (I feel jittery if I have more than one strong cup!)

One study found that 200 milligrams of caffeine (the equivalent of about two cups of coffee) is an optimal amount to enhance cognitive function and mood among sleep-deprived people. But we don’t all metabolize caffeine the same way.

As we’ve reported, the caffeine amounts in coffee vary wildly. One analysis, conducted by Bruce Goldberger, found a 16-ounce cup of caffeinated coffee from Starbucks could contain anywhere from 250 milligrams to more than 500 milligrams of caffeine.

“Not everyone reacts to coffee in the same way,” says Andrew Maynard, who studies risk assessment at Arizona State University. He summarizes the benefits documented in this study as “small.”

He says this study does not prove cause and effect between drinking coffee and living longer. Rather, it points to an association. “There are a lot of unknowns as to what [may explain] the increase in life expectancy,” Maynard says.

Got more questions? So did we. Here’s our conversation about the findings with study co-author Walter Willett, edited for length and clarity.

So, what do you think might explain this association? In the study, you point to compounds in coffee — such as lignans, quinides and magnesium — that may help reduce insulin resistance and inflammation. Prior studies have pointed to these as well.

We’re not sure exactly how coffee is [linked] to all these benefits. The coffee bean itself is loaded with many different nutrients and phytochemicals. And my guess is that they’re working together to have some of these benefits.

We [see] similar benefits from caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee. That’s important, because it suggests that caffeine is not responsible for [the benefit].

So this may be welcome news to people who drink decaf?

Yes, because too much [caffeinated] coffee can cause insomnia and loss of sleep, and that’s not a good thing!

The reduced risk of death was not seen among the coffee drinkers in your study who were smokers or former smokers.

Definitely. It’s extremely important to disentangle the effects of coffee from the effects of cigarette smoking.

So, what’s the take-home here? Is it that coffee can be part of a healthy lifestyle?

I think if people like coffee, it’s fine to include it [as part of your daily habit]. So, certainly, [people] should not feel guilty about moderate coffee consumption. It definitely can be part of a healthy lifestyle.

I wouldn’t suggest that someone who doesn’t like coffee go out and drink it.

Are you a coffee drinker? Are these findings likely to influence your own behaviors?

Well, I really like a good cup of coffee. But if I have more than two cups a day, I really don’t sleep as well. So, I’ve been switching more toward decaf or half decaf/half regular.

In this study, you also analyzed how coffee influenced the risk of specific diseases — or categories of diseases. What did you find?

We went beyond total mortality and looked at specific causes of death. And we found that people who drink moderate amounts of coffee have lower risk of [death] from cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurologic disease [such as Parkinson’s] and suicide.

Your findings come from data from two Nurses’ Health Studies, which included about 167,000 women. And it also looked at the 40,000 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.

As you point out, the participants in these studies are about 95 percent white, largely middle-class and well-educated. Can you extrapolate to other populations?

Yes, I’m quite sure these findings would apply to other populations. This is a biological relationship. And we basically have a common biology.

Health Benefits and Nutritional Information From Coffee

A cup of coffee in the morning may pack more than just an energy boost.

More and more research is emerging to suggest that there may be several health benefits associated with drinking this dark black beverage, from helping prevent diabetes to lowering the risk of liver disease.

The consumption of coffee goes back centuries.

In 17th century England the popularity of the drink gave rise to a number of coffee houses which were dubbed ‘penny universities’, because with one penny a person could buy a cup of coffee and have intellectually stimulating conversations with other people.

Nowadays, with over 400 billion cups consumed every year, coffee is one of the world’s most popular drinks. But what makes it special?

Possible health benefits of coffee

The potential health benefits associated with drinking coffee include: protecting against type 2 diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, liver disease, liver cancer, and promoting a healthy heart.

1) Coffee and diabetes

Coffee may be protective against type 2 diabetes. Researchers at UCLA identified that drinking coffee increases plasma levels of the protein sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). SHBG controls the biological activity of the body’s sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) which play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes.

Dr. Simin Liu, one of the authors of the study, said that an “inverse association” exists between coffee consumption and risk for type 2 diabetes.

Increased coffee consumption may reduce risk of type 2 diabetes – the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) researchers gathered data from three studies. In these studies, the diets of the participants were evaluated using questionnaires every 4 years, with participants who reported having type 2 diabetes filling out additional questionnaires. In total, 7,269 study participants had type 2 diabetes.

The researchers found that the participants who increased their coffee intake by more than one cup a day (on average, an increase of 1.69 cups per day) over a 4-year period had an 11% lower type 2 diabetes risk over the subsequent 4 years, compared with people who did not change their intake.

2) Coffee and Parkinson’s disease

Researchers in the U.S. carried out a study that assessed the link between coffee consumption and Parkinson’s disease risk. The authors of the study concluded that “higher coffee and caffeine intake is associated with a significantly lower incidence of Parkinson’s disease”.

In addition, caffeine in coffee may help control movement in people suffering from Parkinson’s, according to a study conducted at the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI MUHC) that was published in the journal Neurology.

3) Coffee and liver cancer

Italian researchers found that coffee consumption lowers the risk of liver cancer by about 40%. In addition, some of the results suggest that if you drink three cups a day, the risks are reduced by more than 50%.

The lead author of the study, Dr. Carlo La Vecchia, from Milan’s Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, said “our research confirms past claims that coffee is good for your health and particularly the liver.”

4) Coffee and liver disease

Regular consumption of coffee is linked to a reduced risk of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), a rare autoimmune disease of the bile ducts in the liver.

In addition, coffee consumption can lower the incidence of cirrhosis of the liver for alcohol drinkers by 22%, according to a study at the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, California, USA.

The authors of the study concluded that the results “support the hypothesis that there is an ingredient in coffee that protects against cirrhosis, especially alcoholic cirrhosis.”

Research published in the journal Hepatology in April 2014, suggested that drinking coffee is linked to a decreased liver cirrhosis death risk. The researchers suggested that drinking two or more cups of coffee every day can reduce the risk of death from liver cirrhosis by 66%.

A study published in the journal Hepatology indicates that drinking decaf coffee also lowers liver enzyme levels, suggesting the benefits are not linked to caffeine content.

5) Coffee and heart health

Researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) and Harvard School of Public Health, concluded that drinking coffee in moderation protects against heart failure. They defined ‘in moderation’ as 2 European cups (equivalent to two 8-ounce American servings) per day.

People who drank four European cups on a daily basis had an 11% lower risk of heart failure, compared to those who did not.

The authors stressed that their results “did show a possible benefit, but like with so many other things we consume, it really depends on how much coffee you drink.”

Drinking more coffee may stave off multiple sclerosis

Six cups a day linked to 31% lower risk of MS

In both studies, participants provided information about their coffee drinking.

The Swedish participants quantified their usual daily intake in cups at different ages, from 15-19 years until they were 40 years and over.

In the US study, participants gave information about their maximum daily consumption. Those who drank one or more cups also recalled at what age they started drinking coffee regularly.

Fast facts about MS

  • Around 400,000 people live with MS in the US
  • There are approximately 10,000 new diagnoses each year
  • MS mostly affects white people, and women are more prone than men.

The researchers then estimated coffee consumption at and before the onset of symptoms in those with MS, and they compared the results with those of the healthy groups.

There was a consistently higher risk of MS among those who drank fewer cups of coffee every day in both studies, even after adjusting for factors such as smoking and weight during adolescence.

In the Swedish study, coffee consumption correlated with a lower risk of MS both at the onset of symptoms and 5-10 years beforehand. Those who consumed over six cups (900 ml+) daily had a 28-30% lower risk.

The US study revealed a 26-31% reduction in risk among those who drank above 948 ml daily at least 5 years before and at the start of symptoms, compared with those who never drank coffee.

Findings indicate that the more coffee people consume, the lower their risk of MS.

The authors caution that a causative link cannot be confirmed, since this was an observational study.

‘Role of coffee warrants further investigation’

Limitations include the possibility that patients with MS changed their coffee consumption some time between receiving a diagnosis and giving the information, potentially influencing the results. Participants might also not have recalled their coffee consumption accurately.

The effects could also be due to another chemical component of coffee rather than caffeine. The team calls for further research.

Their findings support those of previous animal studies of MS, and they strengthen existing evidence that caffeine protects against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.

In a linked editorial, Dr. Elaine Kingwell and Dr. José Maria Andreas Wijnands, of the Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, point to inconsistencies in previous studies, but they express the hope that a better understanding of MS etiology may lead to novel MS therapies.

They write:

“Although it remains to be shown whether drinking coffee can prevent the development of MS, the results of these thorough analyses add to the growing evidence for the beneficial health effects of coffee. […] The role of coffee in the development of MS clearly warrants further investigation, as do the mechanisms that underlie the relationship.”

The researchers note that while the findings do not confirm that coffee drinking can prevent MS, they add to growing evidence that coffee may be good for health.

Possible health benefits of coffee

1) Coffee and diabetes

Coffee may be protective against type 2 diabetes. Researchers at UCLA identified that drinking coffee increases plasma levels of the protein sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). SHBG controls the biological activity of the body’s sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) which play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes.

Dr. Simin Liu, one of the authors of the study, said that an “inverse association” exists between coffee consumption and risk for type 2 diabetes.

Increased coffee consumption may reduce risk of type 2 diabetes – the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) researchers gathered data from three studies. In these studies, the diets of the participants were evaluated using questionnaires every 4 years, with participants who reported having type 2 diabetes filling out additional questionnaires. In total, 7,269 study participants had type 2 diabetes.

The researchers found that the participants who increased their coffee intake by more than one cup a day (on average, an increase of 1.69 cups per day) over a 4-year period had an 11% lower type 2 diabetes risk over the subsequent 4 years, compared with people who did not change their intake.

2) Coffee and Parkinson’s disease

Researchers in the U.S. carried out a study that assessed the link between coffee consumption and Parkinson’s disease risk. The authors of the study concluded that “higher coffee and caffeine intake is associated with a significantly lower incidence of Parkinson’s disease”.

In addition, caffeine in coffee may help control movement in people suffering from Parkinson’s, according to a study conducted at the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI MUHC) that was published in the journal Neurology.

3) Coffee and liver cancer

Italian researchers found that coffee consumption lowers the risk of liver cancer by about 40%. In addition, some of the results suggest that if you drink three cups a day, the risks are reduced by more than 50%.

The lead author of the study, Dr. Carlo La Vecchia, from Milan’s Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, said “our research confirms past claims that coffee is good for your health and particularly the liver.”

4) Coffee and liver disease

Regular consumption of coffee is linked to a reduced risk of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), a rare autoimmune disease of the bile ducts in the liver.

In addition, coffee consumption can lower the incidence of cirrhosis of the liver for alcohol drinkers by 22%, according to a study at the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, California, USA.

The authors of the study concluded that the results “support the hypothesis that there is an ingredient in coffee that protects against cirrhosis, especially alcoholic cirrhosis.”

Research published in the journal Hepatology in April 2014, suggested that drinking coffee is linked to a decreased liver cirrhosis death risk. The researchers suggested that drinking two or more cups of coffee every day can reduce the risk of death from liver cirrhosis by 66%.

A study published in the journal Hepatology indicates that drinking decaf coffee also lowers liver enzyme levels, suggesting the benefits are not linked to caffeine content.

5) Coffee and heart health

Researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) and Harvard School of Public Health, concluded that drinking coffee in moderation protects against heart failure. They defined ‘in moderation’ as 2 European cups (equivalent to two 8-ounce American servings) per day.

People who drank four European cups on a daily basis had an 11% lower risk of heart failure, compared to those who did not.

The authors stressed that their results “did show a possible benefit, but like with so many other things we consume, it really depends on how much coffee you drink.”

W.H.O. Reverses Position on Coffee Causing Cancer

Coffee: Studies Show It to Be Beneficial for Health

There’s been a firestorm of rhetoric at intervals over the past century regarding coffee and its supposed dangers, and just as much supposition about its incredible health-boosting advantages. The Atlantic reported:

“In the early 1900s, doctors and health agencies warned that caffeine was essentially ‘poison,’ and that drinking coffee would cause ‘nerve storms,’ according to a 1912 issue of The Salt Lake Tribune.

Nervous women, the newspaper cautioned, should abstain from coffee altogether. ‘Unsteady nerves are foes of beauty,’ it said.

… Over time, the debate about coffee — fueled by a combination of legitimate research, junk science, marketing and the rumor mill — has amounted to what the writer Andrew Revkin has called ‘whiplash journalism,’ in which sweeping conclusions about what’s good or bad for you contribute to a mess of contradictions.”3

Many in the scientific community have claimed for decades that coffee actually provides multiple health benefits. In fact, large reviews on the topic have come to the same conclusion that coffee can be erased from the “harmful” list of foods and placed on the “advantageous” list. According to The New York Times:

“Last year, a panel of scientists that shaped the federal government’s 2015 dietary guidelines said there was ‘strong evidence’ that three to five cups of coffee daily was not harmful, and that ‘moderate’ consumption might reduce chronic disease.

Another group, the World Cancer Research Fund International, reported that coffee protects against multiple types of cancer. And several systematic reviews of studies involving millions of people have found that regular coffee drinkers live longer than others.”4

The evidence is fairly convincing that coffee may not only lower your cancer risk, but also your risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes and neurological disorders.

Reports, Reviews, Evidence and Inconsistencies

It wasn’t that long ago — 1991, to be exact — that coffee was termed a “possible carcinogen” linked to bladder cancer. The recent announcement included the acknowledgment that there was simply a lack of evidence that coffee might cause cancer at all.

As a matter of fact, early reports on coffee had compared its hazards with those of lead and diesel fuel.

Those previous studies hadn’t taken into account that many of the coffee drinkers under scrutiny were also heavy smokers, according to Dana Loomis, Ph.D., first author of the report and deputy head of the WHO program focused on cancer-causing substance classifications. In addition, more up-to-date studies have become available.

When the group of 23 scientists from 10 countries met in Lyon, France, the issues surrounded the evidence for or against coffee, as well as “mate,” a tea-like, high-caffeine drink popular in South America.

The group reviewed more than 1,000 studies, submitted over decades, the upshot of which: coffee failed to show detriment to health in relation to prostate, breast and pancreatic cancers, as had been previously conjectured. In the case of uterine and liver cancers, coffee was linked to a lowered cancer risk.

Twenty other cancer types showed “inadequate” evidential links of coffee being a carcinogen; many showed beneficial associations.

 

Coffee Can Help You Live Longer

If you drink coffee, I have some bad news and some good news. The bad news is that the more cups of coffee you drink, the higher your risk of dying early. The good news is that if you “risk adjust,” then the more cups of coffee you drink, the lower your risk of dying early. Let me explain.

According to a 2012 study in the New England Journal of Medicine, 400,000 AARP members were followed for 14 years, with a close survey of their coffee-drinking habits, diet and death.

Among men who drank six cups or more of coffee, 19 percent died early compared to 13 percent of the non-coffee drinkers. Among women who drank six cups or more of coffee, 15 percent died early compared to 10 percent of non-coffee drinkers. To an untrained person it would seem that coffee was detrimental to our health and we should stop at once.

However, people are more complex. As it turns out, the heavy coffee drinkers tended to be heavy smokers, heavy drinkers and red-meat eaters, all habits that can contribute to an earlier death.

So, in such situations, the statisticians do some “tweaking” to the data, formally called risk adjustment. This means that they take into account the higher risk of dying among smokers, drinkers and red-meat eaters and then they compare the population of coffee drinkers to coffee non-drinkers.

And, voila! The risk-adjusted finding is that drinking coffee not only is not harmful but it actually may be protective, like an aspirin, and it is dose-dependant, which means the more coffee you drink the lower your chances of dying.

For example, women who drank six cups or more of coffee had a 15 percent lower chance of dying early compared with those women who drank no coffee. Those who drank one cup of coffee had a 5 percent lower chance of dying than their non-coffee-drinking counterparts.

So I wondered is this just a play of numbers by statisticians or a genuine scientific finding. I think it is real. To the rejoicing of java drinkers across the world, a Japanese study found nearly a 17 percent reduction in death in those who drank six cups of coffee a day compared to one-cup-a-day coffee drinkers, while a study among health professionals found a 20 percent reduction.

When we look at the data in detail, heavy coffee drinkers had lower rates of heart disease, stroke, respiratory illness, diabetes and infections than non-coffee drinkers. Only cancer deaths were not lower.

You may be wondering what is in the coffee that is so beneficial. It’s the caffeine and the antioxidants in the coffee beans. Caffeine is found in medications for Parkinson’s disease, asthma, pain and headaches. One cup of drip-brewed coffee has three and a half times the caffeine of a cup of tea.

It’s mainly the antioxidants that have the major health benefits, so decaffeinated coffee drinkers need not worry. Antioxidants are chemicals that protect the cells from damage, disease and aging. We are encouraged to eat five servings of fruits and vegetables because of their antioxidant content, but one cup of coffee has more antioxidants than a serving of grape juice, blueberries, raspberries or oranges.

Coffee does have its down side. On a rare occasion, when I sip a cup of coffee I become a bit jittery and have to run to the restroom sooner than planned. For others, coffee causes tremulousness and increases their heart rate and blood pressure.

All this news about coffee is exciting for research scientists at Vanderbilt University’s Institute for Coffee Studies. (Honestly, such an institute exists as a division of the Vanderbilt University Medical Center.) They study the potential therapeutic uses of coffee.

One other note: The AARP study was observational, not causal. That is: It does not prove a cause-and-effect relationship. To scientifically prove that coffee reduces mortality rates, we would have to take a group, divide the participants in half, provide coffee to one group and restrict coffee from the other group and then look at mortality rates over 15 years. Obviously, no sane coffee drinkers or nondrinkers would subject themselves to such a study.

Until then, this is the best scientific finding we have, which is good if you are a coffee drinker. So drink up.

Coffee and Caffeine – How Much Should You Drink

How Much Caffeine is in a Cup of Coffee?

Cup of Coffee

The active ingredient in coffee is caffeine, the most commonly consumed psychoactive substance in the world.

The caffeine content in a cup of coffee is highly variable, ranging from 50 to 400+ mg per cup.

A small home-brewed cup of coffee could contain 50 mg, while a big 16 oz Starbucks grande can contain over 300 mg.

As a general rule, you can assume that an average 8 ounce cup of coffee contains around 100 mg of caffeine.

Several sources suggest that 400 mg of caffeine, or 4 cups of coffee, are safe for most healthy adults.

However, many people (including myself) drink much more than that without any issues.

Keep in mind that there are many other sources of caffeine besides coffee, including tea, soft drinks, energy drinks, chocolate and certain medications.

Short-Term Symptoms of Too Much Caffeine

Businessman Wired From Too Much Coffee

When it comes to the health effects of coffee, there are both short- and long-term symptoms.

Let’s talk about the short-term symptoms first, which are mostly related to the caffeine itself.

Caffeine works primarily in the brain, where it affects the function of neurotransmitters and exerts a stimulant effect.

If you drink too much coffee in a short amount of time, you will experience symptoms mostly related to your brain and digestive system.

Here are some common symptoms of ingesting too much caffeine:

  • Restlessness.
  • Anxiety.
  • Dizziness.
  • Upset stomach.
  • Irritability.
  • Insomnia.
  • Fast heartbeat.
  • Tremors.

If you experience such symptoms after drinking coffee, then you may be sensitive to caffeine and may want to cut back your intake (or simply avoid caffeine altogether).

It is possible to die from a caffeine overdose, but this is next to impossible to do with coffee alone. You would have to drink more than 100 cups in a single day.

Drinking Coffee Tied To Lower Risk Of Death

Reuters Health) – In a 10-year U.S. study, people who drank coffee regularly were less likely to die of many causes, including heart disease and diabetes, than those who didn’t drink coffee at all.

The more coffee study participants consumed, the lower their risk of dying, and decaf drinkers showed a similar pattern.

“Coffee contains numerous biologically active compounds, including phenolic acids, potassium, and caffeine,” said lead author Dr. Erikka Loftfield of the National Cancer Institute in Rockville, Maryland.

Many studies have found that coffee consumption is associated with lower risk of overall and heart-related mortality, Loftfield told Reuters Health by email.

The researchers used data from a previous study on 90,317 adults without cancer or history of cardiovascular disease who were followed from 1998 through 2009. They had reported their coffee intake, along with other dietary and health details, at the start of the study.

By 2009, about 8,700 people had died. After accounting for other factors like smoking, the researchers found that coffee drinkers were less likely to have died during the study than nondrinkers.

The risk of death was lowest for those who drank four to five cups of coffee per day. A similar association was seen among drinkers of decaffeinated coffee as well, according to the results in American Journal of Epidemiology.

Coffee drinkers had a reduced risk of death from heart disease, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, pneumonia and influenza and suicide, but not cancer, the researchers found.

“Although coffee drinking has also been inversely associated with incidence of certain cancers, like liver, in epidemiological studies, we did not observe an association between coffee and overall cancer mortality,” Loftfield said. “This may be because coffee reduces mortality risk for some cancers but not others.”

People who consumed two to three cups of coffee per day had approximately an 18 percent lower risk death during follow-up compared to those who reported drinking no coffee, she said. Drinking up to five cups per day, or 400 milligrams of caffeine per day, is not associated with any long-term health risks, Loftfield added.

Moderate caffeine intake, up to 200 milligrams per day, is even safe for pregnant women, according to a statement by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

“There is an accumulating number of studies of very high quality that show that people who drink more coffee tend to have better health outcomes,” said Dr. Marc J. Gunter of Imperial College London, who was not part of the new study.

“Coffee drinking is correlated with other health behaviors,” and those who drink it regularly may have other healthy habits, like exercising and keeping to a healthier diet, though the researchers tried to account for those other factors, Gunter told Reuters Health.

The study doesn’t prove that coffee extends life.

“You could argue that people who are already sick might not be drinking as much coffee,” Gunter said.

But coffee may also have a direct effect on inflammation or cardiovascular health, he said.

“It doesn’t seem to do you any harm, if you like drinking coffee then carry on,” Gunter said.

Coffee can be part of a healthy, balanced lifestyle, and it may even do some good, though we can’t yet recommend than non-drinkers adopt the habit for health reasons, he said.

What About The Caffein

Caffeine is the most widely used drug in the world and can be helpful or harmful, depending on how it’s used. Caffeine provides a “lift” by blocking the normal action of adenosine. Adenosine normally slows down your brain’s activity and induces sleepiness. Some people are caffeine sensitive and don’t tolerate it well, or have problems sleeping if they have caffeine too late in the day.

Caffeine levels vary depending on type of bean, roast, grind, and brewing method. Contrary to popular belief, darker roasts typically contain less caffeine than lighter roasts due to the prolonged heat breaking down more of the caffeine molecules. Bean species also differ widely in their naturally occurring concentrations of caffeine. Additionally, drip coffee actually has more caffeine than espresso because the brew time is much longer. And in general, the finer the grind, the higher the caffeine in the coffee. So, you might want to vary some of these factors if you experience a reaction, like switching from drip coffee to espresso, or changing brands.

If you have an issue with decreased adrenal function, use coffee with care, as it can be hard on your adrenal glands. Coffee also has a diuretic effect, so if you have problems with electrolyte imbalance, you might want to avoid it.

If you have any negative reactions to coffee, caffeine isn’t always the culprit. You could be sensitive to some of the burnt sugars or oils produced during the roasting of the beans, rather than the caffeine. People experience symptoms such as stomach cramping, heart palpitations and other autonomic symptoms, and these symptoms are usually interpreted as caffeine sensitivity when they are actually more of a food intolerance. There is also the possibility of mold or other contaminants triggering an allergy (as coffee is a dried food), so you want to make sure your coffee is of the highest quality and meticulously produced.

But as a whole, if you’re healthy, coffee is pretty well tolerated and the positive effects seem to outweigh the negative ones for most people. Please note that I still recommend women completely avoid using caffeine while pregnant.