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A Engineering of Coffee

 The Design of Coffee provides a non-mathematical introduction to chemical engineering, as illustrated by the roasting and brewing of coffee. Hands-on coffee experiments demonstrate key engineering principles, including material balances, chemical kinetics, mass transfer, fluid mechanics, conservation of energy, and colloidal phenomena. The experiments lead to an engineering design competition where contestants strive to make the best tasting coffee using the least amount of energy – a classic engineering optimization problem, but one that is both fun and tasty!

Anybody with access to a sink, electricity, and inexpensive coffee roasting and brewing equipment can do these experiments, either as part of a class or with your friends at home. The Design of Coffee will help you understand how to think like an engineer – and how to make excellent coffee!

This revised second edition presents streamlined lab experiences, adds new bonus material on industrial coffee operations, and includes a new lab experience focused on sensory analysis during traditional cupping of coffee.

FEATURES:
* Covers all aspects of making coffee, from green beans to the final brew
* Does not require calculus or

The World Atlas of Coffee: From Beans to Brewing

 Professionals and enthusiasts alike will love this beautiful book by James Hoffmann. From overviews of the world’s most vibrant coffee-growing regions, to step-by-step brewing tutorials, the content is educational, thought-provoking, and substantial. I’ve already recommended this book to Barista Magazine readers countless times.
— Sarah Allen, Editor
Barista Magazine

A beautiful world guide to the brown bean.

Taking the reader on a global tour of coffee-growing countries, The World Atlas of Coffee presents the bean in full-color photographs and concise, informative text. It shows the origins of coffee — where it is grown, the people who grow it; and the cultures in which coffee is a way of life — and the world of consumption — processing, grades, the consumer and the modern culture of coffee.

Plants of the genus Coffea are cultivated in more than 70 countries but primarily in equatorial Latin America, Southeast Asia and Africa. For some countries, including Central African Republic, Colombia, Ethiopia, and Honduras, coffee is the number one export and critical to the economy.

Organized by continent and then further

Coffee Auction in Kenya

 Kenya’s coffee auction system dates back to 1934. The auctions still take place at the Nairobi Coffee Exchange and are widely considered to be most transparent distribution system for fine green coffees anywhere in the coffee world and inspired the model for the Cup of Excellence auctions.

Coffee growing was introduced in Kenya by the British around 1900. In the 1950, several extremely successful hybrids from Scott Laboratories were introduced and these have largely replaced the original French Bourbon stock which had been brought to Kenya from neighbouring Ethiopia. The most well-known are SL28 and SL34 and are Bourbon varieties and lend Kenya the distinctive big body and winy blackcurrant notes for which it is famed.

Following independence from the British in 1963, Kenya organised their coffee industry around a weekly government-run open auction system. This transparent system is establishing a pricing hierarchy based on quality with finer lots fetching higher prices. There is now increasing competition for the better-known estates and co-ops and particularly for the AA grade beans. The grades are simply a measure of bean

Drink Coffe For Your Health

If you have a daily coffee habit, here’s something to buzz about: A new study finds those cups of joe may help boost longevity.

“In our study, we found people who drank three to five cups of coffee per day had about a 15 percent lower [risk of premature] mortality compared to people who didn’t drink coffee,” says one of the study authors, nutrition researcher Walter Willett of the Harvard School of Public Health. Decaf drinkers also saw benefits.

The findings, published in the journal Circulation, build on a body of evidence linking a coffee habit to potential health benefits.

As we’ve reported, previous research has pointed to a decreased risk of stroke. And, there’s some evidence that a coffee habit cuts the risk of Type 2 diabetes, too.

Now, of course, it’s possible to overdo it with caffeine. Research has shown that consuming more than 400 milligrams of caffeine can interfere with sleep and create feelings of unease. And some of us are even more sensitive. (I feel jittery if I have

Health Benefits and Nutritional Information From Coffee

A cup of coffee in the morning may pack more than just an energy boost.

More and more research is emerging to suggest that there may be several health benefits associated with drinking this dark black beverage, from helping prevent diabetes to lowering the risk of liver disease.

The consumption of coffee goes back centuries.

In 17th century England the popularity of the drink gave rise to a number of coffee houses which were dubbed ‘penny universities’, because with one penny a person could buy a cup of coffee and have intellectually stimulating conversations with other people.

Nowadays, with over 400 billion cups consumed every year, coffee is one of the world’s most popular drinks. But what makes it special?

Possible health benefits of coffee

The potential health benefits associated with drinking coffee include: protecting against type 2 diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, liver disease, liver cancer, and promoting a healthy heart.

1) Coffee and diabetes

Coffee may be protective against type 2 diabetes. Researchers at UCLA identified that drinking coffee increases plasma levels of the protein sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). SHBG controls the biological activity of the body’s sex hormones (testosterone

Drinking more coffee may stave off multiple sclerosis

Six cups a day linked to 31% lower risk of MS

In both studies, participants provided information about their coffee drinking.

The Swedish participants quantified their usual daily intake in cups at different ages, from 15-19 years until they were 40 years and over.

In the US study, participants gave information about their maximum daily consumption. Those who drank one or more cups also recalled at what age they started drinking coffee regularly.

Fast facts about MS

  • Around 400,000 people live with MS in the US
  • There are approximately 10,000 new diagnoses each year
  • MS mostly affects white people, and women are more prone than men.

The researchers then estimated coffee consumption at and before the onset of symptoms in those with MS, and they compared the results with those of the healthy groups.

There was a consistently higher risk of MS among those who drank fewer cups of coffee every day in both studies, even after adjusting for factors such as smoking and weight during adolescence.

In the Swedish study, coffee consumption correlated with a lower risk of MS both at the onset of symptoms and 5-10 years beforehand. Those

Possible health benefits of coffee

1) Coffee and diabetes

Coffee may be protective against type 2 diabetes. Researchers at UCLA identified that drinking coffee increases plasma levels of the protein sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). SHBG controls the biological activity of the body’s sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) which play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes.

Dr. Simin Liu, one of the authors of the study, said that an “inverse association” exists between coffee consumption and risk for type 2 diabetes.

Increased coffee consumption may reduce risk of type 2 diabetes – the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) researchers gathered data from three studies. In these studies, the diets of the participants were evaluated using questionnaires every 4 years, with participants who reported having type 2 diabetes filling out additional questionnaires. In total, 7,269 study participants had type 2 diabetes.

The researchers found that the participants who increased their coffee intake by more than one cup a day (on average, an increase of 1.69 cups per day) over a 4-year period had an 11% lower type 2 diabetes risk over the subsequent 4 years, compared with people who did not change their intake.

2) Coffee

W.H.O. Reverses Position on Coffee Causing Cancer

Coffee: Studies Show It to Be Beneficial for Health

There’s been a firestorm of rhetoric at intervals over the past century regarding coffee and its supposed dangers, and just as much supposition about its incredible health-boosting advantages. The Atlantic reported:

“In the early 1900s, doctors and health agencies warned that caffeine was essentially ‘poison,’ and that drinking coffee would cause ‘nerve storms,’ according to a 1912 issue of The Salt Lake Tribune.

Nervous women, the newspaper cautioned, should abstain from coffee altogether. ‘Unsteady nerves are foes of beauty,’ it said.

… Over time, the debate about coffee — fueled by a combination of legitimate research, junk science, marketing and the rumor mill — has amounted to what the writer Andrew Revkin has called ‘whiplash journalism,’ in which sweeping conclusions about what’s good or bad for you contribute to a mess of contradictions.”3

Many in the scientific community have claimed for decades that coffee actually provides multiple health benefits. In fact, large reviews on the topic have come to the same conclusion that coffee can be erased from the “harmful” list of foods and placed on the “advantageous” list. According to The New York Times:

“Last year, a panel of

Coffee Can Help You Live Longer

If you drink coffee, I have some bad news and some good news. The bad news is that the more cups of coffee you drink, the higher your risk of dying early. The good news is that if you “risk adjust,” then the more cups of coffee you drink, the lower your risk of dying early. Let me explain.

According to a 2012 study in the New England Journal of Medicine, 400,000 AARP members were followed for 14 years, with a close survey of their coffee-drinking habits, diet and death.

Among men who drank six cups or more of coffee, 19 percent died early compared to 13 percent of the non-coffee drinkers. Among women who drank six cups or more of coffee, 15 percent died early compared to 10 percent of non-coffee drinkers. To an untrained person it would seem that coffee was detrimental to our health and we should stop at once.

However, people are more complex. As it turns out, the heavy coffee drinkers tended to be heavy smokers, heavy drinkers and red-meat eaters, all habits that can contribute to an

Coffee and Caffeine – How Much Should You Drink

How Much Caffeine is in a Cup of Coffee?

Cup of Coffee

The active ingredient in coffee is caffeine, the most commonly consumed psychoactive substance in the world.

The caffeine content in a cup of coffee is highly variable, ranging from 50 to 400+ mg per cup.

A small home-brewed cup of coffee could contain 50 mg, while a big 16 oz Starbucks grande can contain over 300 mg.

As a general rule, you can assume that an average 8 ounce cup of coffee contains around 100 mg of caffeine.

Several sources suggest that 400 mg of caffeine, or 4 cups of coffee, are safe for most healthy adults.

However, many people (including myself) drink much more than that without any issues.

Keep in mind that there are many other sources of caffeine besides coffee, including tea, soft drinks, energy drinks, chocolate and certain medications.

Short-Term Symptoms of Too Much Caffeine

Businessman Wired From Too Much Coffee

When it comes to the health effects of coffee, there are both short- and

Drinking Coffee Tied To Lower Risk Of Death

Reuters Health) – In a 10-year U.S. study, people who drank coffee regularly were less likely to die of many causes, including heart disease and diabetes, than those who didn’t drink coffee at all.

The more coffee study participants consumed, the lower their risk of dying, and decaf drinkers showed a similar pattern.

“Coffee contains numerous biologically active compounds, including phenolic acids, potassium, and caffeine,” said lead author Dr. Erikka Loftfield of the National Cancer Institute in Rockville, Maryland.

Many studies have found that coffee consumption is associated with lower risk of overall and heart-related mortality, Loftfield told Reuters Health by email.

The researchers used data from a previous study on 90,317 adults without cancer or history of cardiovascular disease who were followed from 1998 through 2009. They had reported their coffee intake, along with other dietary and health details, at the start of the study.

By 2009, about 8,700 people had died. After accounting for other factors like smoking, the researchers found that coffee drinkers were less likely to have died during the study than nondrinkers.

What About The Caffein

Caffeine is the most widely used drug in the world and can be helpful or harmful, depending on how it’s used. Caffeine provides a “lift” by blocking the normal action of adenosine. Adenosine normally slows down your brain’s activity and induces sleepiness. Some people are caffeine sensitive and don’t tolerate it well, or have problems sleeping if they have caffeine too late in the day.

Caffeine levels vary depending on type of bean, roast, grind, and brewing method. Contrary to popular belief, darker roasts typically contain less caffeine than lighter roasts due to the prolonged heat breaking down more of the caffeine molecules. Bean species also differ widely in their naturally occurring concentrations of caffeine. Additionally, drip coffee actually has more caffeine than espresso because the brew time is much longer. And in general, the finer the grind, the higher the caffeine in the coffee. So, you might want to vary some of these factors if you experience a reaction, like switching from drip coffee to espresso, or changing brands.

If you have an issue with decreased adrenal function, use coffee with care, as it can be hard on your adrenal glands. Coffee also has a

History Of Coffe

Most believe that coffee was originally discovered by mankind in Ethiopia. Once local monks discovered it, they began to dry the berries and ship them to other monasteries. The berries would be refreshed with water and then the fruit would be eaten and the water that the berries had soaked in would be drunk as well.

By the time the dried berries made it to the Middle East, there was quite a lot of interest in them and farmers began growing them first in Yemen. In Turkey, the coffee beans were roasted for the first time and began to resemble what we would recognize as coffee today. After roasting, the dried beans would be roasted, crushed and boiled in water. This was a crude early version of what so many coffee lovers drink today.

Coffee was probably brought to Europe by Venetian merchants. Given its stimulating effect, there seemed to be some criticism among Catholics that the drink was evil. Oddly, the Pope at the time was already enjoying it and informed his constituents that it wasn’t evil, it was just misunderstood.

Coffee houses spread across Europe and soon they became gathering places for those intellectuals who debated among themselves. Once

Good or Bad | Decaf Coffee

Coffee is one of the world’s most popular beverages.

Many people enjoy drinking coffee, but want to limit their caffeine intake for some reason.

For these people, decaf coffee is an excellent alternative.

Decaf coffee is just like regular coffee, except the caffeine has been removed.

This article takes a detailed look at decaf coffee and its health effects, both good and bad.

What is Decaf Coffee and How is it Made?

Decaf is short for decaffeinated coffee.

It is coffee from coffee beans that have had at least 97% of their caffeine removed.

There are many ways to remove caffeine from coffee beans. Most of them include water, organic solvents or carbon dioxide.

Coffee beans are washed in the solvent until the caffeine has been extracted into it, then the solvent is removed.

The beans are decaffeinated before they are roasted and ground. The nutritional value of decaf coffee should be almost identical to regular coffee, apart from the caffeine content.

However, the taste and smell may become a little milder and the color may change, depending on the method used.

This can make decaf

Coffee

Coffee is a plant (Coffea) and the name of the drink that is made from this plant. The coffee plant is a bush or tree that can grow up to ten meters (about 32 feet) high, but is usually cut shorter. Coffee plants originally grew in Africa, and now also grow in South America, Central America and Southeast Asia. They are an important crop for the economies of many countries.

The drink is made from the seeds of the coffee plant, called coffee beans. Coffee is usually served hot, and is a popular drink in many countries. Coffee contains a chemical called caffeine, a mild drug that keeps people awake.

To make a drink from coffee beans, the beans must first be specially prepared by drying the beans and then roasting. The beans are dried a short time after they are picked. This preserves them and makes them ready to be packed or roasted. Before the beans are made into a drink, they must roasted are ground (crushed into tiny pieces in a coffee mill). When the ground coffee is placed into boiling water, the flavour and dark brown colour of the beans goes into the

How Does Coffee Affect Blood Sugar and Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a massive health problem worldwide.

About 29 million people, or 9% of all US adults, had type 2 diabetes in the year 2012.

Interestingly, long-term studies have linked coffee drinking with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes.

Yet, oddly enough, many short-term studies have shown that coffee and caffeine can raise blood sugar and insulin levels.

Why this happens is not fully known, but there are several theories.

This article examines the short-term and long-term effects of coffee on blood sugar and diabetes.

Coffee and Caffeine May Raise Blood Sugar

A major paradox exists between the long-term and short-term effects of coffee.

Short-term studies have linked caffeine and coffee consumption with increased blood sugar levels and insulin resistance.

A recent study showed that a single serving of coffee, containing 100 mg of caffeine, can negatively affect blood sugar control in healthy but overweight men.

Other short-term studies — both in healthy individuals and in type 2 diabetics — show that consuming caffeinated coffee impaired blood sugar regulation and insulin sensitivity after meals.

This does not happen with decaf coffee, which suggests that

Can Coffee Increase Your Metabolism and Help You Burn Fat

Coffee contains caffeine… which is the most commonly consumed psychoactive substance in the world.

Caffeine has made its way to most commercial fat burning supplements, for good reason.

It is one of the few substances that is known to help mobilize fats from the fat tissues and increase metabolism.

Coffee Can Help to Mobilize Fat From The Fat Tissues

Caffeine stimulates the nervous system, which sends direct signals to the fat cells to tell them to break down fat.

Another thing that caffeine does is to increase our blood levels of the hormone Epinephrine, which is also known as Adrenaline.

Epinephrine travels through the blood, to the fat tissues and send signals to break down fats and release them into the blood.

This is how caffeine helps to mobilize fat from the fat tissues, making it available for use as free fatty acids in the blood.

Coffee Can Increase The Metabolic Rate

How many calories we burn at rest is called the Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR).

The higher our metabolic rate, the easier it is for us to lose weight and the more we can allow ourselves to eat without gaining.

Studies show

Coffee | Good Or Bad For Brain

Coffee is a widely popular drink.

It has been unfairly demonized in the past, but is actually very healthy.

In fact, coffee is a major source of antioxidants in the Western diet.

It’s also associated with many health benefits, including a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes and liver disease.

But does coffee also have benefits for your brain? Let’s find out.

Active Ingredients in Coffee

Coffee is an incredibly healthy beverage. It contains hundreds of bioactive compounds that contribute to its powerful health benefits.

Many of these compounds are antioxidants, which fight the damage caused by free radicals in your cells.

Here are coffee’s most important active ingredients :

  • Caffeine: The main active ingredient in coffee, caffeine stimulates the central nervous system. It is the most commonly consumed psychoactive substance worldwide .
  • Chlorogenic acids (CGAs): These polyphenol antioxidants may benefit some biological pathways, such as blood sugar metabolism and high blood pressure, both of which are related to the risk of age-related mental decline .
  • Cafestol and kahweol: Present in coffee’s natural oil, high amounts of these compounds are found in unfiltered coffee. They may be good for the liver and protect against cancer, but a high intake may raise LDL cholesterol .
  • Trigonelline: This alkaloid compound is unstable at high

Coffee Is

Research is showing benefits for everything from depression to liver disease. Is it just the caffeine?

Remember when people (and their doctors) used to worry that coffee would harm their hearts, give them ulcers, and make them overly nervous?

In excess, coffee, and more particularly, caffeine, can cause problems. But the fretting about two or three cups a day, or even more, is fading as study results suggestive of health benefits from coffee keep on coming in. In 2011, researchers reported findings that coffee drinking is associated with a lower risk of depression among women, a lower risk of lethal prostate cancer among men, and a lower risk of stroke among men and women. Go back a little further, and you’ll come across reports of possible (it’s not a done deal) protective effects against everything from Parkinson’s disease to diabetes to some types of cancer (see sidebar below).

Caffeine has been studied more than any other ingredient in coffee, and it tends to get credit if the body part benefited is the brain. But coffee contains literally a thousand different substances, and some of the lesser lights are thought to be responsible for healthful effects

caffein benefit

Caffeine is the most commonly consumed psychoactive drug in the world, and some of its behavioral effects (such as arousal) may resemble those produced by cocaine, amphetamines, and other stimulants. Coffee consumption accounts for about 75% of the adult intake of caffeine in the United States, although that might be changing among younger adults with the growing popularity of energy drinks.

The caffeine content of coffee varies greatly, depending on the beans, how they’re roasted, and other factors, but the average for an 8-ounce cup is about 100 milligrams (mg). Tea has about half as much caffeine as coffee. Decaffeinated coffee has some caffeine, but the 2 to 4 mg in an 8-ounce cup is a smidgen compared with the caffeinated version. The lethal dose of caffeine is about 10 grams, which is equivalent to the amount of caffeine in 100 cups of coffee.

Caffeine gets absorbed in the stomach and small intestine and then distributed throughout the body, including the brain. The amount circulating in the blood peaks 30 to 45 minutes after it’s ingested and only small amounts are around eight to 10 hours later. In between, the amount circulating declines as caffeine gets